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The Indian skipper, who has enjoyed a record-breaking year, hit 17 fours as India reached 451 for seven in their first innings at stumps in reply to England’s total of 400.
Kohli passed 1,000 Test runs for the year and 4,000 for his career during his 241-ball knock to ensure India, leading 2-0 in the five-match series, take a 51-run lead with three wickets remaining into day four.
The 28-year-old entered the fray early in the morning session after Cheteshwar Pujara (47) was bowled out by Jake Ball on just the second ball of the day at the Wankhede Stadium.
“He played exceptionally well today and you have to take your hat off sometimes and just accept it,” England’s Joe Root said of Kohli.
“The amount of runs Kohli has scored this series, if you take those away it’s a completely different series,” added the 25-year-old Root, whose England side must win if they are to keep the series alive.
Kohli, who has hit two double centuries in 2016, held fort at one end, reaching his century mark midway through the final session.
It marked the Indian captain’s second century of the series after his 167 in the second Test at Visakhapatnam.
Kohli’s unbeaten century came after Indian opener Murali Vijay smashed 10 fours and three sixes on his way to a magnificent 136 after starting the morning on 70.
Vijay was sent packing shortly after lunch when spinner Adil Rashid caught and bowled the right-handed batsman.
“It’s very hard to bowl against guys when they’re in that sort of form. They deserved the scores they got,” said Root, who grabbed two wickets.
“The most important thing is we look forward to tomorrow and we take those three early wickets when we get the opportunity.
“Then when it comes to batting we look to put pressure back on them. If we can do that well then we have a really good game on our hands,” added Root.
Kohli excelled at the crease with some exquisite shotmaking as the wickets of Parthiv Patel (15) and Ravichandran Ashwin (0) fell to Root.
Rashid grabbed his second wicket of the day when Ravindra Jadeja was dismissed for 25 but Jayant Yadav stood firm and was batting on 30 with Kohli when stumps were called.
“Any lead is gold on this wicket,” Vijay said.
“During tea-time we just thought ‘get close to their target’ but now the way Virat and Yadav are batting I think we’re in a pretty good position.”